Would it be more efficient to allocate resources to teach low income children to read and write at, or above grade level than to spend millions of dollars for band-aid social services, or incarceration?
I am not an economist or social scientist, but I would think so. However there is so much money made off of the generational dysfunction of the poor and low income families, the benefactors of that dysfunction are not interested in innovative ways to improve the education of low income students.
So the crime, the dysfunction, the slow implosion of low income African American (Black) Chicago neighborhoods will continue.
The most obvious conclusion is that different parts of the city are headed in entirely different directions, a trend that likely explains why certain neighborhoods are as safe as Toronto and others are as scary as Caracas.
The leading indicator is education, how far you've gone in school. With factory work largely either outsourced or automated, your chances of earning a good living vary dramatically based on whether you've graduated from college.